How many years between bankruptcies

Financing Customers with Pre-Discharge Bankruptcies

Dealers are looking everywhere they can to find profits to boost their bottom lines and return to profitability, and special finance is going to play a huge part in achieving that goal. With the limited number of funding sources, booking deals for credit-challenged customers has become harder, even as that sector continues

to grow. To really ramp up sales, experienced special finance managers get good at selling to “niche” markets. One such market that has been a source of profits for many dealers is customers who have recently filed for bankruptcy.

Bankruptcies have always been a fundamental part of any well-run special finance department, but most dealers tend to wait until a customer’s bankruptcy has been discharged — that is, their debts have been cleared — before they’ll make a move. One way to gain market share is to work with “pre-discharge” customers who are still in the process of Chapter 7 bankruptcy.

Going after this market requires a little extra work, but it pays off in the margins. Grosses, for instance, are much higher due to the fact you don’t have to worry about negative equity from trade-ins. But to do it right, a special finance manager will first need to learn how bankruptcies work.

Dealers who work with pre-discharge buyers often have to take on two roles: credit counselor and dealmaker. That requires extensive knowledge of how bankruptcies work. For starters, let’s define the two main forms of individual bankruptcy protection:

Chapter 7: This is the most common form of bankruptcy for individuals. Often referred to as a ‘liquidation,’ the debtor’s non-exempt property — the guidelines for which vary from state to state — goes toward repaying his or her creditors, after which most remaining debts are discharged, typically within 90 to 120 days. Certain debts such as income and property tax, child support and student loans typically cannot be discharged.

Chapter 13: This less-common filing is, on the surface, somewhat more like debt consolidation. An income-earning individual can file for protection under Chapter 13 and set up a plan to repay his or her creditors, typically over a period of three to five years.

The Administrative Office of the United States Courts reports that bankruptcy filings and discharges are escalating. 101,753 American households filed or discharged a bankruptcy between Jan. 1–23, 2009, compared to 78,278 during the same period in 2008.

“The good news is that franchise dealers are working with lenders like Tidewater, CapOne, AmeriCredit, Wachovia and many others to offer loans to these individuals,” says Robert Davies, president of “It’s a win-win situation. Families are buying quality automobiles while re-establishing their credit with firms that report to the credit bureaus.”

The numbers project to at least 101,753 bankruptcy cases filed in January 2009, including 52,207 discharged Chapter 7s and 13s, a 20 percent increase from 2008. Chapter 7s accounted for more than 70 percent of all bankruptcies. As of January 6, 2009, there were nearly 1 million open bankruptcies being processed for discharge in the U.S.

How many years between bankruptcies

When it comes to their vehicles, filers often don’t know what they should do. They need their cars and they fear they’ll never be approved for another purchase. This may lead them to reaffirm outstanding debt on a vehicle that may have mechanical problems or they owe way too much on. For that reason alone, special finance managers who want to tap into the bankruptcy market must also take on a third role: marketing expert.

Marketing to the pre-discharge customer

Ideally, your first mailer will reach a pre-discharge customer within a few days of his or her filing. With a lot of other matters to cover, bankruptcy attorneys aren’t always able to convey all the pertinent information an individual needs to decide how to handle their vehicle situation.

You want to get them on the phone as close to the filing date as possible.

“Getting on these customers early and often is the key to advertising to the bankruptcy customers,” says J.P. Miller Jr., vice president of Paul Miller Ford Mazda in Lexington, Ky. “We start to send mail to them starting the day after filing and continue till discharge. It pays huge dividends for us as we average much higher grosses on these customers.”

Auto retail veteran Tom Martin agrees. He spent 10 years working with bankruptcy customers — at one point mailing 10,000 to 15,000 letters each month for a single Ford dealership in Ohio. He then founded Columbus, Ohio-based ACH Consulting LLC, a consulting firm that specializes in helping auto dealers start their own dedicated bankruptcy departments.

“The latest phase of this business has gone to the ’Net,” Martin says. “We’re trying to lead customers to a Website that will capture their information. We send out a mailer called The Top 5 Things Your Attorney Did Not Tell You. They log onto our site and submit their names, phone numbers and e-mail addresses before they can continue. Then we take their e-mails and put them into a series of auto responders to keep us in front of customers.”

Another part of Martin’s marketing plan is to get to know bankruptcy attorneys.

“Attorneys have been one of my best sources for leads throughout the years,” he says. “I have even done credit-building seminars for several attorneys’ clients so they could understand how to build their credit the right way.”

A sympathetic ear

In the counselor role, a special finance manager must be willing to get to the bottom of each customer’s credit situation. Bankruptcies, more than any other form of negative credit, are influenced by outside factors. Whether it’s an unexpected medical expense, job loss or divorce, many of your pre-discharge customers never planned to file for bankruptcy — they just ran out of options.

In 1993, one of the first special finance customers I ever worked with walked into my office with a perfect credit bureau report … except for a Chapter 7 bankruptcy. Everything else was paid on time, and I had to ask what led to the filing. He and his wife explained that their daughter was born with a hole in her heart and they had racked up $500,000 in medical bills almost overnight. They tried to work out some kind of settlement, but the hospital was preparing to sue them and they had to seek protection.

Every time I start to get frustrated by the job, I remember how I helped those people and how grateful they were. There are a lot of people who have to file bankruptcy for similar reasons. They’re not all deadbeats or career debtors, and a good special finance manager will be ready with a sympathetic ear. Remember that these customers are under a lot of stress and can lose sight of their goals.

“Whenever I hire someone for a bankruptcy department, I look for a person who is not a car person, and I typically prefer to hire ladies,” Tom Martin says. “I find that women are more willing and able to gain the trust of customers in bankruptcy.”

Cindy Christianson, general manager of Herbie’s Auto Sales in Greeley, Colo., agrees.

“We have one lady who only handles our bankruptcies,” Christianson says. “She pulls fresh filings every day and starts sending the first of our four letters to them. Then she handles all the incoming phone calls and helps calm the customers’ nerves.”

The last part of the equation is having lenders that will approve these customers. Just about every subprime lender has programs for recently discharged customers, but far fewer are equipped to handle a pre-discharge.

Virginia Beach, Va.-based Tidewater Motor Credit has been financing pre-discharge customers for many years. The performance of those loans over time has justified their focus on that market.

“We are still buying open Chapter 7s and discharged BKs,” says Dedra Muffley, Tidewater’s marketing supervisor. “In fact, the open BKs represented the majority of our business last month. In this critical time, it became necessary for all of us to re-evaluate how we are operating and become as efficient and effective as possible. During this evaluation, we had to make some painful decisions regarding staffing and dealer clients.

“We confirmed for ourselves that lending to those people whose credit problems are behind them is what makes the best business sense for us and what pays out better. Generally, we are still buying those customers in the same way.”

When asked if that strategy will hold up through what promises to be a difficult year, Muffley is adamant.

“We absolutely expect this to be the bread and butter for ’09,” she says, “and we hope that those slices become loaves as we are able to add more dealers little by little. We remain hopeful that in the coming months, we will once again have a ‘green light’ as far as growth is concerned.”

Due to an expanding market for dealers and high profitability for lenders, bankruptcy business is sure to be an area that grows faster than other areas of the special finance business as it rebounds from a shaky 2008.

Bankruptcy Basics: How to File for Chapter 7 or Chapter 13

How many years between bankruptcies

Bankruptcy lets you get your overwhelming debt forgiven or restructured under the protection of a federal court.

Consumers have two main options:

  • Chapter 7 (liquidation): The quickest, simplest and most common type. Most unsecured debts, such as credit cards, medical debt and personal loans, are discharged, or forgiven. You may have to give up some assets, like an expensive car or jewelry, but the vast majority of filers do not.
  • Chapter 13 (reorganization): You repay some or all of your debt under a court-approved plan. Debts must be under a certain level, and you must have enough income to repay them over three to five years.

Bankruptcy isn’t easy or cheap, and it likely will crimp your access to new credit for seven to 10 years. But it may be the best way to salvage your finances.

Here’s a look at what bankruptcy is, whether it’s right for you, how to file, and what to watch out for along the way.

Bankruptcy has some stigma and misconceptions surrounding it, and it’s not easy or cheap — but this debt relief tool might be your best bet for a better financial future.

You and your attorney will work to prove your eligibility for a debt discharge or reorganization to a bankruptcy trustee, who administers the proceedings.

Bankruptcy will leave a serious mark on your credit reports, and you’ll likely find it harder to borrow money for years to come. Even so, you’ll probably see your credit scores start to recover once you take this step to resolve your debts.

“Bankruptcy gives you a chance for a fresh start,” says Dan LaBert, executive director of the National Association of Consumer Bankruptcy Attorneys. “It’s not political; it could happen to anyone. I think when people feel that overwhelming pressure from financial stress — and they’re seeing that pressure stretch out and impact those around them — bankruptcy is a very legitimate option for them.”

Bankruptcy may be your best solution if:

  • Your debts total more than half your annual income.
  • It would take five years or more to pay off your debt, even if you took extreme measures.
  • Your debt interferes with other aspects your life, such as your relationships or your ability to sleep.

Other debt relief options are available, such as a debt management plan through a credit counseling agency. Think through your circumstances and goals and take advantage of the free initial advice that credit counselors and many bankruptcy attorneys offer before deciding on a particular path.

“Bankruptcy is not a panacea for every situation, and I think that if you’re contemplating doing it, you should have a frank conversation with an attorney,” says California bankruptcy attorney Matthew Olson. “There’s the downside of the hit on your credit report, but frequently that will be outweighed by relief of stress and getting this problem solved and letting you move forward with your finances.”

Bankruptcy is complicated. Although it can be tempting to hire a petition preparer to fill out paperwork and try to do the rest on your own, skipping a step or improperly filling out a form can lead to your case being thrown out or not having certain debts dismissed. That’s why finding the right bankruptcy attorney is important. In general, look for these three things when vetting potential attorneys:

  • Depth of knowledge.
  • Charges in line with the complexity of your case.
  • Confidence you can develop a good professional relationship.

“Working in bankruptcy requires a specialization,” says California bankruptcy attorney Cathy Moran. “You want someone who does enough of this kind of work to have some depth of knowledge. This is not a field for dabblers or generalists.”

Attorney fees vary greatly by location, attorney and complexity of the case. But Moran warns that bottom-of-the-barrel prices might leave you shortchanged.

“I think it’s almost inevitable that the people who are the cheapest are trouble,” Moran says. “They can’t afford to spend any time on your case, and if they think they can stay in business charging $700 for a bankruptcy, they haven’t done it very long to know that at that rate the lawyer is either making $3.25 an hour or the client is getting shorted.”

Many companies promise quick fixes for your financial problems but can’t actually help resolve your debt. Watch out for any that:

  • Ask you to pay a fee before receiving any services.
  • Promise to wipe out your debt without you having to declare bankruptcy or pay a fee.
  • Tell you to make your debt payments to their company rather than your creditors, without your creditors’ explicit consent.
  • Tell you to stop communicating with your creditors or say you need professional help to contact them.
  • Promise to magically repair your credit.
  • Tell you you’re eligible for a government program to help relieve your debt; only the government agency in question can determine your eligibility.

Choosing between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 will likely come down to your eligibility, your priorities and the value of assets that could be seized in a Chapter 7 bankruptcy. Each state lets you exempt a certain amount of value for certain assets; a house and car are the main ones people worry about.

Here’s how Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 work and which might be right for your situation.

• Cannot have filed for Chapter 7 in the past eight years or Chapter 13 in the past six.

• Unsecured debt cannot exceed $394,725. Secured debt cannot exceed $1,184,200.

• Must be current on tax filings.

• Cannot have filed for Chapter 13 in the past two years or Chapter 7 in the past four years.

An experienced bankruptcy attorney can help you determine which is best for your situation, but in general:

  • Your problem debts are ones that can be discharged, or forgiven, by Chapter 7, such as medical bills or credit card debt.
  • You don’t have many assets. Many Chapter 7 filers have modest cars and not much income. If the value of your possessions falls within the exemption limits, you don’t have to worry about your assets being seized.
  • You don’t think you’d be able to pay off your debts over three to five years.
  • You want to keep certain assets and/or you’re behind on your mortgage or car payments and want to make them up over time.
  • Most of your debts are student loans, child support or other debts that either can’t or are highly unlikely to be discharged under Chapter 7.
  • You have nonexempt assets that you want to keep, such as a nicer car or valuable jewelry.
  • You have a co-signer on an indebted account. With Chapter 7, creditors are free to go after your co-signer even though you’re protected. If you file Chapter 13, you can arrange to pay off the co-signed debt in your repayment plan, protecting your co-signer.

Chapter 11 is a less common form of consumer bankruptcy; it’s typically for those with debts greater than about $2 million.

Your attorney will handle most of the paperwork. Your part is providing complete information on your income, expenses and debts. Here’s a general outline of what to expect:

By the time you’ve decided to file for bankruptcy, your financial situation — from your balance sheets to your credit score — is likely in ruins. But things will begin to get better once your debts are discharged or reorganized.

You can begin to focus on rebuilding your finances. Building a budget and applying for a secured credit card are good first steps.

Although a bankruptcy will linger on your credit reports for years, you can minimize its effect by working to restore your credit and take control of your finances.

Sean Pyles is a staff writer at NerdWallet, a personal finance website. Email: [email protected]

This article was updated July 27, 2016. It was originally published Aug. 2, 2013.

How many years between bankruptcies

It’s a classic catch-22: You’re in rough financial shape and need to file for bankruptcy. But between filing fees and the cost of hiring the right bankruptcy attorney, you could end up paying hundreds, or even thousands, of dollars to do so.

Here’s what bankruptcy costs — and how to pay for it.

You’ll face two expenses: the court filing fees to handle your case, and attorney fees for the bankruptcy lawyer who files your petition, helps you through the means test and represents you in court.

There are several types of bankruptcy. The most common for consumers are Chapter 7 bankruptcy, where most all of your debts will be forgiven; and Chapter 13, which reorganizes your debts into a repayment plan.

*Attorney fees vary greatly; these are approximate ranges.

Filing fees are the same nationwide, but attorney fees vary based on your location, the complexity of your case and the attorney. In general, they’ll be lower if you live in a rural area or have a simple case. A complex bankruptcy case in Manhattan, however, will likely cost several thousand dollars.

If you’re filing for Chapter 13, your court will review your attorney fees unless they fall below the so-called “no-look” level that’s recognized as reasonable. This level varies from one district to another, so check with your local court before hiring an attorney.

Filing Chapter 13 means you have the financial footing to structure a repayment plan for your debts — including your attorney fees — after you’ve filed.

But if you’re in enough financial distress that you need to file Chapter 7, you’ll likely need to pay your attorney before he or she files your case. If you can’t afford these costs, you can:

  • Raise the money.
  • Work out a payment plan pre-filing.
  • Go pro bono, which means finding an attorney who will take your case free of charge.

The first option takes creativity and hard work. The others require you to prove financial need, so gather proof of your income and expenses, as well as your tax statements, before meeting with any legal counsel.

A few simple steps can help you free up or find money for your bankruptcy.

First: Minimize your outgoing cash. “If you’re still paying your credit cards, stop paying them,” New Jersey bankruptcy attorney John Hargrave says. “You’re just throwing that money away if you’re going to file . Save that money and put it toward your bankruptcy.”

Unsecured debts, such as credit card bills, are wiped out through a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, so it makes little sense to keep paying them if you’re certain about using this debt relief option .

Next, try to earn some additional income . Selling old electronics or taking on a part-time job are two ways to earn some fast cash.

If you’ve already pawned your flat screen and started a dog walking service but still don’t have enough to cover your bankruptcy, try asking family and friends for help. You can also tap into a 401(k) or IRA if you have one. That’s truly a last resort, though, as it could jeopardize your ability to afford retirement.

You might be able to spread out the costs of your attorney and filing fees.

The first step is finding the right attorney . In this case, that means one who has expertise, is a good communicator and charges a fair price — and is willing to receive payment over time. Ask any lawyer you’re considering about the possibility during your initial meeting.

Payment plans vary; some lawyers allow you to spread payments over six months, others three months. Most will want full payment before filing your case. Because Chapter 7 bankruptcy wipes out most of your debts, you wouldn’t be legally obligated to pay your attorney any outstanding fees after filing. That’s just not a sustainable business plan.

But you can still get some benefit, even while you’re making the payments, Hargrave says. Once you officially hire a lawyer, he or she can take calls from creditors on your behalf. When you discuss setting up a payment plan, ask how much of the fee you must pay before the lawyer will begin taking calls.

“When people hire a bankruptcy lawyer, they know the fear of going to the mailbox, the fear of what phone call is going to come next — that evaporates when you hire an attorney,” Hargrave says. “That’s a huge benefit for people.”

Later, your attorney can work with the court to set up a payment plan for your bankruptcy filing fee. The $335 fee can be split into as many as four payments.

You might qualify for free legal services or waived fees if your income is less than 150% of the poverty line for your family size and you’re unable to afford a payment plan.

There are a few ways to find a pro bono attorney. First, ask your local bankruptcy court for information about free legal clinics and local free legal aid resources. If you meet their guidelines, these organizations might be able to offer some help or connect you with pro bono bankruptcy attorneys. But be prepared: Legal aid organizations are often underfunded and overworked. Still, getting on the list with one is a good starting point while pursuing other options.

The American Bankruptcy Institute’s bankruptcy attorney directory can also point you toward pro bono help in your area.

You can also reach out to your state’s bar association. Some firms require attorneys to make pro bono work 10% to 15% of their caseloads. Just don’t pick an attorney simply because he or she is free.

You might feel a little odd asking for free legal representation, but Jim Carman, communications director at the American Bankruptcy Institute, says bankruptcy lawyers are accustomed to the requests.

“They understand that people aren’t coming to them lightly, and they’re going to understand that there’s a certain tightness in the wallet,” Carman says. “If people are in that kind of extreme situation, they really need to seek out a pro bono attorney.”

Lastly, you can hire a petition preparer instead of an attorney if you’re in a hurry to file your bankruptcy. He or she will help you fill out your paperwork for an hourly fee that can be as low as $70. Know that a petition preparer can’t give you the legal advice that an attorney can provide, but this is an option if you just want to file in order to trigger the “automatic stay” that halts collection efforts.

If you’re thinking of filing on your own, without any legal assistance, Hargrave advises one thing: Don’t.

“There’s a jeopardy in doing a bankruptcy by yourself,” he says. “Even if you’re a well-educated, articulate person, the law still has a lot of jargon and technical stuff that you, without assistance of a lawyer, could screw up.”

Making a mistake on your paperwork can lead the court to throw out your case, wasting the effort and money you’ve put into it.

Bankruptcy is confusing enough , and worrying about how you’ll pay for it makes it even worse. If you’re struggling to pay your filing and attorney fees, these options can help you get on track toward getting your debts forgiven.

From there, you can start to rebuild your credit , work out a budget and hopefully, someday, live debt-free.

Sean Pyles is a staff writer at NerdWallet, a personal finance website. Email: [email protected]

How many years between bankruptcies

Your bankruptcy attorney will serve as your advocate and guide through what is a sometimes confusing process. Taking the time to contact a few lawyers and knowing what to look for can set you on the path toward successfully filing for bankruptcy.

When hiring an attorney to help you file your Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy case, look for expertise, a fair price and a communication style you’re comfortable with.

Several online directories promise to help with finding a bankruptcy lawyer in your area. Be aware, however, that many of these directories simply list attorneys in exchange for a fee and don’t offer a guarantee of quality. Bring a discerning eye to any listing you consult.

Start with these two resources:

The ABA site lists lawyers and firms that meets its standards for lawyer referral, and you can sift through the results for attorneys that specialize in bankruptcy. You can also check your state’s bar association for local resources.

The NACBA directory lists bankruptcy attorneys exclusively. The organization is dedicated to helping consumers going through bankruptcy and attorneys who specialize in this area. However, NACBA’s membership criteria are fairly generous, so membership does not necessarily equal quality or experience.

In addition to these directories, ask friends and colleagues for recommendations if you feel comfortable doing so.

Contact a few attorneys who seem qualified and arrange a consultation with each one. Some attorneys offer free meetings, and others will charge a fee of around $35 for this initial conference. Don’t assume no charge means lesser qualifications; starting with free meetings can help you get comfortable interviewing lawyers and may lead you to the one you choose.

At all of the meetings, aim to find out three things:

  • Does the attorney have the expertise to help you?
  • Are the fees are appropriate?
  • Would you feel comfortable working with this person?

Successfully navigating the bankruptcy code requires a deep knowledge of this area of law and the experience to know how to use it. A misfiled form or missed deadline could result in your case being thrown out. That’s why finding a specialist is important.

“Going with an attorney who is not specialized in bankruptcy can be very dangerous because they might not understand how to interpret this complicated area of the law,” says Dan LaBert, executive director of the NACBA. “You wouldn’t go to a dermatologist if you had a heart problem.”

Ask the lawyers you contact what specialized training or background they have. Those who have bankruptcy certification from the American Board of Certification have proven they know their way around the bankruptcy code better than your average attorney. An affiliation with NACBA is also a sign that an attorney is committed to advocating for people going through bankruptcy.

Ask the attorneys you meet with how many Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 bankruptcies they’ve handled. And know that a good bankruptcy lawyer will also discuss alternatives to bankruptcy, such as credit counseling, with clients.

There is no “right” amount a bankruptcy attorney should charge, although generally a Chapter 13 filing will cost more than a Chapter 7. Fees vary from case to case and from one state to another.

You can expect to pay between $500 and $3,500 for a Chapter 7 and between $1,500 and $6,000 for a Chapter 13, LaBert says. The more complicated the case, the more expensive it’s likely to be. Ask about the attorney’s fee structure during your first conversation and make sure you understand what services are included.

California bankruptcy attorney Cathy Moran says the most important thing is making sure you’re getting your money’s worth for your specific situation. “You need to know what’s at stake for you when you pick a bankruptcy lawyer,” Moran says. “If you have very few assets and there’s not much to lose, then you can choose a Smart Car or Ford Escort. But if you’ve got a home with equity or a fight with somebody nasty, you need an Audi or a Lexus — you need some horsepower.”

Before you hire any attorney, ask yourself if you feel comfortable being open with him or her.

“I think that the quality of the communication is important because if you don’t, as the client, feel comfortable … disclosing what you’re worried about, if you keep secrets, it will be a deal killer for your case,” Moran says. Without having all of your information, Moran says, she would “have no way of knowing if my and your assessment of the situation is right.”

You and your bankruptcy attorney have a serious job ahead: working to make sure you can get the best deal for your situation. That’s going to involve hard conversations, and a dedication to open communication will help.

“It really does come down to having a compatible personality with the attorney,” LaBert says. “Your attorney is not going to be your buddy or your pal. They’re going to give you hard advice, and it will often relate to your spending habits. But ultimately the attorney has to make a welcoming environment for the client.”

Be wary of “bankruptcy mills,” or law firms that handle so many bankruptcy cases that they can’t give yours the time and attention it deserves. If in your first meeting you aren’t able to work one on one with the attorney to air your concerns and talk through your case, you might want to go elsewhere.

Keep these qualities in mind throughout your search and take your time.

Although it takes work to find the right lawyer, don’t be tempted to go without one. “I always say ‘pro se, no way’ for bankruptcy,” LaBert says, referring to the legal term for representing yourself.

Both he and Moran agree that if bankruptcy law is too complicated for a dabbling attorney, it’s too complicated for average people to tackle on their own — or at least too complicated to do so successfully.

Finding the right attorney for your situation will allow you to execute this debt relief option successfully, freeing you to focus on restoring your credit and living debt free.

Sean Pyles is a staff writer at NerdWallet, a personal finance website. Email: [email protected]

How many years between bankruptcies

Declaring Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy is no small decision, but it may be your best debt relief option if you see no clear route to paying off what you owe within five years.

Bankruptcy is a long and sometimes confusing process; just filing can take months to complete. The federal government requires two sessions of credit counseling: pre-filing counseling to kick off the process and pre-discharge counseling before your debts are forgiven. These sessions will help you understand how bankruptcy works, its lasting effects and how to avoid financial risk in the future.

The counseling sessions don’t take long to complete, and they can be the most painless part of filing for bankruptcy. Here’s what to expect.

After finding the right attorney for your situation, pre-filing bankruptcy counseling is your first step toward getting the gears of the process turning. If you don’t go through pre-filing counseling before submitting your case to the court, it will be thrown out.

In addition to being an educational course to help you understand the advantages and disadvantages of going through bankruptcy, pre-filing counseling also presents alternatives such as debt management to help you determine whether bankruptcy is the best way to resolve your debt.

“We show consumers local resources they may not know are available,” says Joji Varghese, a credit counselor with Clearpoint Credit Counseling Solutions. “There are alternatives for them to get out of debt on their own. Many can learn how to cut their expenses and save a little bit to pay off their debts without filing for bankruptcy.”

Bankruptcy attorney Lawrence Szabo calls that unlikely, however: “In theory, it’s designed to see if maybe an alternative to bankruptcy could be considered, but that very rarely happens.”

When you finish the pre-filing session, you will receive a certificate of completion valid for 180 days. You’ll need that certificate if you do decide to file for bankruptcy.

Pre-discharge counseling, the last step before the court finalizes your bankruptcy and discharges your debts, offers valuable financial education to help you manage your finances in the future.

“It’s focused on income, expenses and strategies for how to help you save money,” Szabo says. “I’ve had a few of my clients over the years say they actually found it quite helpful.”

This class covers much of the same ground as the pre-filing session but with a focus on increasing your financial literacy. You’ll cover topics such as understanding your credit scores, managing a budget and avoiding financial risk.

“If a person is serious about getting out of debt, the pre-discharge course can give them information and tools to avoid getting into the same situation again,” Varghese says.

As with pre-filing counseling, you’ll receive a certificate upon completion. You’ll need to have that certificate before the court will discharge your debts.

Pre-filing counseling and pre-discharge education are available only from nonprofit credit counseling agencies approved by the Department of Justice.

Look through the approved agencies and talk with a few credit counselors to find one you feel comfortable with. (Keep in mind you can switch to a different agency for the second session if you like.)

Don’t worry if you don’t find an approved agency near you; most pre-filing and pre-discharge sessions take place over the phone or online. Some agencies, like Clearpoint, do pre-discharge sessions only online.

Before going into either session, gather documents that outline your income, expenses and debt to expedite the process. Expect each session to take between 90 minutes and two hours.

The average cost for pre-filing and pre-discharge courses is $25 to $50 each, depending on where and how you do the counseling.

Most of the bigger credit counseling agencies, such as ClearPoint and Money Management International, charge a flat rate of $50 per session. But some states cap the fee for pre-filing counseling at $20, and some agencies offer lower fees for online sessions. For instance, InCharge Bankruptcy Counseling charges $25 for pre-filing counseling online and $15 for its online pre-discharge course.

Many credit counseling agencies will waive the fees if they determine you can’t pay given your household budget. Be sure to get any fees in writing before starting a pre-filing or pre-discharge session.

These counseling sessions are just two steps on the journey of eliminating debt through bankruptcy. It’s not an easy or quick fix: Chapter 7 takes three to six months, and Chapter 13 takes three to five years.

If you use the tools provided in the counseling sessions, however, you can begin to erase its effects on your credit upon completing your bankruptcy.

“After you take the second course and your bankruptcy is discharged, you can start rebuilding your credit,” NerdWallet columnist and financial advisor Liz Weston says. “The first step is to save up a little cash for an emergency fund, and then look into credit builder loans and secured cards.”

“If you manage these accounts responsibly, you should start to see your credit scores improving within a year or two,” Weston says. “The bankruptcy will continue to affect those scores for 10 years, but many people can get their scores up to ‘good’ levels within three to five years.”

Sean Pyles is a staff writer at NerdWallet, a personal finance website. Email: [email protected]

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How many years between bankruptcies

A Chapter 7 bankruptcy gives you the relief of a clean financial slate — but also the worry that you’ll never have decent credit again.

If you were eligible to file Chapter 7, chances are your credit was in tatters. But that’s different from the common misconception that bankruptcy ruins your financial future forever.

The truth is you can begin to restore your credit right away.

I pay off this much debt:

How many years between bankruptcies

Although a bankruptcy will remain on your credit reports for 10 years, its impact will fade with time. You can help the process by offsetting the negative information on your credit report with something more positive.

At this point, lenders would like to see that you have enough income to pay your current obligations, and have a little left over. A lighter debt burden makes you a more attractive borrower.

Also, lenders won’t have to worry that you’ll file for bankruptcy to get rid of any new debt; you won’t be able to receive another discharge of your debts for eight years.

Here’s your first order of business: Create a budget to help you stay on top of your finances. The pre-discharge credit counseling you went through before finishing your bankruptcy should have provided information on budgeting, but if not, don’t hesitate to seek help from a credit counseling agency . All nonprofit credit counseling agencies offer free basic consumer help on topics such as budgeting .

Next, begin building an emergency fund . Research by the Urban Institute shows that having as little as $250 in savings for an unexpected expense can protect families from resorting to payday loans or running up credit cards, which can start a new debt spiral.

You might think you’re a pariah in the eyes of lenders and credit card issuers, but that’s not quite true. You’ll have to prove yourself, of course, but it can be done.

Although your goal — building a good credit score — is the same as that of someone starting from scratch, your situation is a little different. Your problem isn’t that creditors don’t know anything about you, but rather that they know a lot.

First, assess your situation. You can do that by checking your free annual credit reports. Your credit scores are calculated using information in your credit reports, so any inaccurate negative information can make it even harder for you to dig out of debt. If you find errors, dispute them and get them corrected.

Of course, there will be negative information that is accurate. Your reports will show your bankruptcy for 10 years. Also, late payments and debts that go to collection remain on the reports until seven years after the delinquencies. A Chapter 7 filing wipes out debts, but it doesn’t wipe your credit reports clean.

Second, check your credit score. There are several ways to get a free credit score, from personal finance websites like NerdWallet and some credit card issuers. It’s smart to track your credit score month to month, and it’s crucial to look at the same score each time — otherwise, you’ll get a not-useful apples-to-oranges comparison. Pick one type of score to track and stick with it.

Cleaning up your credit reports and knowing which credit score will be seen by lenders helps you know which credit products to apply for.

Your pre-bankruptcy payment history will make you look like an extremely risky borrower to lenders. You can fix that problem by providing extra assurances that they won’t lose money by lending to you. Here are four ways to improve your financial profile. That will help you get credit and work on restoring your score:

Secured loan: This comes in two varieties, and most often is offered by credit unions or community banks. One kind of secured loan involves borrowing against money you already have on deposit. You won’t be able to access that money while you’re paying off your loan. The other kind can be made without cash upfront, though the money loaned to you is placed in a savings account and released to you only after you have made the necessary payments. In return, the financial institution agrees to send a report about your payment history to the credit bureaus.

Secured credit card: This kind of card is backed by a deposit you pay, and the credit limit typically is the amount you have on deposit. A secured card often has annual fees and may carry high interest rates, but you shouldn’t need it for the long term. It can be used to mend your credit until you become eligible for a better, unsecured card.

Be aware that you can be rejected for a secured card. Read the requirements carefully; you’ll want to be almost certain you can get approved before you apply for one, because each credit inquiry can cause a small, temporary drop in your score. This decline will be more than offset if you get a card, use it lightly, and pay the debt on time.

NerdWallet credit card expert Sean McQuay recommends applying for a secured card at a credit union or other local bank. “They tend to be much more lenient with credit history, and many will be happy to work with you to build your credit profile,” he said. “One big caveat, however: Before applying, make sure the bank or credit union reports credit activity to all three credit bureaus. Make sure your good credit behavior counts.”

Co-signed credit card or loan: This can help your score, but you need to have a friend or family member with good credit history who is willing to co-sign for you. It’s a big ask: A co-signer is risking his or her credit reputation for you, will be on the hook for the full amount if you don’t pay, and may face limits on personal borrowing because of the additional debt obligation. A co-signed card or loan can damage relationships if you don’t pay as agreed.

Authorized user status: If asking someone to co-sign is too much, you could instead ask to be an authorized user on that person’s credit card. But make sure the credit card will report payment activity by authorized users to the credit bureaus, or it won’t help build your score.

This route won’t lift a score by nearly as much as the other methods, because authorized users don’t have ultimate responsibility for repaying debt. (It is much more likely to help someone who has a “thin file” with little credit information in it than someone who has a file chock-full of negative information.) But this path won’t hurt, so you may want to pursue it.

Once you get a lender to extend credit, be vigilant about paying on time. Keep your credit card balances low relative to card limits — less than 30% is typically advised, but less than 10% is even better.

You’re already seeking redemption, so you can’t put yourself in a position where you’re begging for forgiveness for a late payment or struggling to keep up with mounting credit balances.

When your recent history finally shows you are a good credit risk, your vigilance in restoring your credit reputation will pay off.

This article was updated June 20, 2016. It was originally published Dec. 17, 2014.

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